Quantitative Ultrasound - An Epidemiological Tool to Uncover the Influence of Lifestyle Factors & its Associated Co Morbidities on Bone Density
Keywords:Quantitative Ultrasound, BMI, Drug Intake, BMD, Lifestyle Diseases
Osteoporosis, the metabolic disorder has become a global epidemic1 with increase in life expectancy and changing life style. Quantitative ultrasound is a cheap, non invasive, portable and convenient method to estimate bone strength without any radiation hazard.2–5 The aim of our study is to estimate the bone mineral density by using quantitative ultrasound, look for the influence of parameters like lifestyle factors, comorbidities, chronic drug intake, and other risk factors on BMD; and compare the results with those in the literature done with DEXA scans. In our study of 516 subjects, (i) BMD measures varied from -5.6 to +.5.55 with a mean of -1.8. (ii) BMD decreased significantly with age (r=.351, p<0.0001), (iii) Low BMD was associated with increase in Fragility fractures (p=.007) (iv) Antacid intake, which was pretty common in our subjects (28.7%) led to decrease in BMD (p<.005). (v) Diabetes significantly reduced BMD (p<.005). (vi) Increase in BMI led to significant increase in BMD (r=.166, p<.0001). (vii) BMD increased significantly with increase in physical activity (r=.148, p<.001). Most of the associations found in our study, except that with diabetes, were similar to those consistently associated with BMD as measured with DEXA scans.6–15 Our study suggests the use of Quantitative ultrasound as powerful epidemiological tool with similar outcome measures to DEXA scan without any radiation hazards.